Fausset’s Bible Dictionary
(“appointed by Jehovah, or he whom Jehovah establishes or fortifies” (Keil).) JECONIAH, CONIAH. Son of Jehoiakim and Nehushta; at 18 succeeded his father, and was king of Judah for three months and ten days; 20th king from David. In 2Ch_36:9 his age is made “eight” at his accession, so Septuagint, Vulgate. But a few Hebrew manuscripts, Syriac and Arabic, read “eighteen” here also; it is probably a transcriber’s error. The correctness of eighteen, not eight, is proved by Eze_19:5-9, where he appears as “going up and down among the lions, catching the prey, devouring men, knowing the widows” (margin) of the men so devoured; unless Jehoiakim is meant. The term “whelp” appears to apply more to his son Jehoiachin, who moreover answers better to the description of the mother (Judah) “taking another of her whelps, and making him a young lion.”
Lord A. C. Hervey prefers “eight,” from Mat_1:11. “Josias begat Jechonias and his brethren about the time they were carried away to Babylon,” fixing his birth to the time of Nebuchadnezzar’s invasion (2Ki_24:1), namely, three years after Jehoiakim’s accession, and eight before his reign ended and Jehoiachin succeeded; but Matthew’s language hardly justifies this; Jeremiah’s language implies Jehoiachin was a “man,” and capable of having a “child” (2Ki_22:28; 2Ki_22:30). Jerusalem was an easy prey to Nebuchadnezzar at this time, Judah having been wasted for three or four years by Chaldaean, Ammonite, and Moabite bands, sent by Nebuchadnezzar (as Jehovah’s executioner of judgment) in consequence of Jehoiakim’s rebellion. Egypt, after its defeat at Carchemish by Nebuchadnezzar, could not interpose (2Ki_23:7-17).
After sending his servants (generals distinct from the Chaldaean and other bands) to besiege Jerusalem, Nebuchadnezzar in person came (2Ch_36:10 margin) at the turn of the year, i.e. spring, in the eighth year of his reign, counting from the time that his father transferred the command of the army against Necho to him (so that his first coincides with the fourth of Jehoiakim, Jer_25:1). Jehoiachin seeing the impossibility of resistance made a virtue of necessity by going out to Nebuchadnezzar, he, the queen mother (who, as the king was only 18, held chief power; Jer_13:18 undesignedly coincides with and confirms the history, “Say unto the king and to the queen, Humble yourselves,” etc.), servants, princes, and eunuchs (margin).
Nebuchadnezzar, after Jehoiakim’s rebellion (notwithstanding his agreement at Nebuchadnezzar’s first advance to be his vassal) (2Ki_24:1; Dan_1:1), would not trust his son Jehoiachin, but carried him away, the queen mother, his wives, chamberlains, and all the men of might, 7,000, and 1,000 crafts. men and smiths; fulfilling Jeremiah’s prophecy (Jer_22:24, etc.), He had already taken at the first siege of Jerusalem in Jehoiakim’s third year part of the vessels of God’s house (Dan_1:1-2; 2Ch_36:7) and put them in the house of his god in Babylon, namely, the smaller vessels of solid gold, basins, goblets, knives, tongs, etc., which Cyrus restored (Ezr_1:7, etc.). Now he cut the gold off (not “cut in pieces,” 2Ki_24:13) the larger vessels which were plated, the altar of burnt offering, the table of shewbread, and the ark, so that at the third conquest of Jerusalem under Zedekiah there were only the large brazen vessels of the court remaining, beside a few gold and silver basins and firepans (2Ki_25:13-17).
Nebuchadnezzar also carried off the treasures of Jeconiah’s house (2Ki_24:13), “as Jehovah had spoken” to Hezekiah long before (2Ki_20:17; Jer_15:13; Jer_17:3; Jer_29:2). The inhabitants carried off were the best not only in means but in character. In 2Ki_24:14 they are said to be 10,000; the details are specified in 2Ki_24:15-16; “none remained save the poorest sort of the people of the land,” having neither wealth nor skill to raise war, and therefore giving Nebuchadnezzar no fear of rebellion. The “princes” (satire) are the king’s great court officials; “the mighty men of valor” (gibbowrey hachail, “mighty men of wealth,” same Hebrew as 2Ki_15:20) are men of property, rather than prowess: 2Ki_15:14. In 2Ki_15:16 “men of might” (anshey hachail) may mean the same, but nowsh is a low man; I think therefore it means “men of the army,” as in Eze_37:10, and is defined by “all that were strong and apt for war,” 7,000.
The craftsmen (masons, smiths, and carpenters) and locksmiths (including weapon makers, hamasgeer), were 1,000; so the “princes” or king’s officials, “the mighty men of wealth,” and “the mighty of the land” (uley haarets), i.e. heads of tribes and families found in Jerusalem (including the nation’s spiritual heads, priests and prophets, with Ezekiel: Jer_29:1; Eze_1:1) must have been 2,000, to make up the “ten thousand.” In Jer_52:28 the number is 3,023, but that was the number carried away “in the seventh year,” “in the eighth year” of Nebuchadnezzar the 10,000 were carried away. The 1,000 “craftsmen” may be exclusive of the 10,000. Evidently, the 4,600 in all mentioned (Jer_52:30) as carried away do not include the general multitude and the women and children (Jer_52:15; Jer_39:9; 2Ki_25:11), for otherwise the number would be too small, since the numbers who returned were 42,360 (Ezra 2; Nehemiah 7).
Jehoiachin wore prison garments for 36 years, until at the death of Nebuchadnezzar, having been for a time sharer of his imprisonment (Jer_52:31-34), “in the 12th month, the 25th day of the month (in 2Ki_25:27 ‘the 27th,’ the day when the decree for his elevation, given on the 25th, was carried into effect) lifted up the head of Jehoiachin (compare Gen_40:13-20; Psa_3:3; Psa_27:6), and brought him forth out of prison, and spoke kindly unto him, and set his throne above the throne of the kings that were with him in Babylon, and changed his prison garments (for royal robes; compare Zec_3:1-5; Luk_15:22), and he did continually eat bread before him all the days of his life (compare 2Sa_9:13); and there was a continual diet given him of the king of Babylon, every day its portion (compare margin 1Ki_8:59) until the day of his death.” (See EVIL-MERODACH.)
God, in sparing and at last elevating him, rewarded his having surrendered to Nebuchadnezzar, which was God’s will (Jer_38:17; Jer_27:6-12; compare 2Ki_24:12). In the fourth year of his uncle Zedekiah (so called by Nebuchadnezzar instead of Mattaniah), false prophets encouraged the popular hope of the return of Jehoiachin to Jerusalem (Jer_28:4).(See HANANIAH.) But God’s oath made this impossible: “as I live, though Coniah were the signet (ring seal, Son_8:6; Hag_2:23) upon My right hand, yet would I pluck thee thence.” “Is this man Coniah a despised broken idol? (he was idolized by the Jews). Is he a vessel wherein is no pleasure?” Jeremiah hereby expresses their astonishment that one from whom they expected so much should be now so utterly east aside. Contrast the believer, 2Ti_2:21; compare as to Israel Hos_8:8, to which Rom_9:20-23 gives the answer.
Jeremiah (Jer_22:28) mentions distinctly “his seed,” therefore “childless” in Jer_22:30 means having no direct lineal heir to the throne. One of his sons was Zedekiah (Zidkijah), distinct in name and fact from Zedekiah (Zidkijahu), Jeconiah’s uncle, whose succession after Jehoiachin would never cause him to be called “his son” (1Ch_3:16). This Zedekiah is mentioned separately from the other sons of Jehoiachin, Assir and Salathiel, because probably he was not led to Babylon as the other sons, but died in Judea (Keil). In Luk_3:27 Shealtiel (Salathiel) is son of Neri of the lineage of David’s son Nathan, not Solomon. Probably Assir left a daughter, who, according to the law of heiresses (Num_37:8; Num_36:8-9), married a man of a family of her paternal tribe, namely, Neri descended from Nathan. Shealtiel is called Assir’s “son” (1Ch_3:17), i.e. grandson.
So “Jechonias (it is said Mat_1:12) begat Salathiel,” i.e. was his forefather. Jecamiah Assir, as often occurs in genealogies, is skipped in Matthew. (See JECAMIAH); GENEALOGIES.) A party of the captives at Babylon also, through the false prophets, expected restoration with Jehoiachin and Nebuchadnezzar’s overthrow. This accounts for the Babylonian king inflicting so terrible a punishment (compare Daniel 3), roasting to death Ahab (Jer_29:4-9; Jer_29:21-23; Jer_29:27-32). Ezekiel dates his prophecies by Jehoiachin’s captivity, the latest date being the 27th year (Eze_1:2; Eze_29:17; Eze_40:1). The Apocrypha (Bar_1:3, and the History of Susanna) relates dubious stories. about Jehoiachin. Kish, Mordecai’s ancestor, was carried away with Jehoiachin (Est_2:6).
Fausset’s Bible Dictionary
In the monuments Nabu-juduri-utsur, the middle syllable being the same as Kudur or Chedor-laomer. Explained by Gesenius “the prince favored by Nebo”; Oppert, “Nebo, kadr (“power”), and zar (“prince”)”; Rawlinson, “Nebo his protector (participle from naatsar “protect”) against misfortune” (kidor “trouble”.) His father Nabo-polassar having overthrown Nineveh, Babylon became supreme. Married his father’s Median ally, Cyaxares’ daughter, Amuhia, at the time of their alliance against Assyria 625 B.C. (Abydenus in Eusebius, Chronicles Can., i. 9). Possibly is the Labynetus (Herodotus i. 74) who led the Babylonian force under Cyaxares in his Lydian war and whose interposition at the eclipse (610 B.C.) concluded the campaign. Sent by Nabopolassar to punish Pharaoh Necho, the conqueror of Josiah at Megiddo. Defeated Necho at Carchemish (605 B.C.) and wrested from him all the territory from Euphrates to Egypt (Jer_46:2; Jer_46:12; 2Ki_24:7) which he had held for three years, so that “he came not again any more out of his land.”
Became master of Coelo-Syria, Phoenicia, and Palestine. Took Jerusalem in the third year of Jehoiakim, and “carried into the land of Shinar, to the house of his god (Merodach), part of the vessels of the house of God” (Dan_1:1-2; 2Ch_36:6). Daniel and the three children of the royal seed were at that time taken to Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar mounted the throne 604 B.C., having rapidly re-crossed the desert with his light troops and reached Babylon before any disturbance could take place. He brought with him Jehovah’s vessels and the Jewish captives. The fourth year of Jehoiakim coincided with the first of Nebuchadnezzar (Jer_25:1). In the earlier part of the (year Nebuchadnezzar smote Necho at Carchemish, Jer_46:2). The deportation from Jerusalem was shortly before, namely, in the end of Jehoiakim’s third year; with it begins the Babylonian captivity, 605 B.C. (Jer_29:1-10). Jehoiakim after three years of vassalage revolted, in reliance on Egypt (2Ki_24:1). Nebuchadnezzar sent bands of Chaldees, Syrians, Moabites, and Ammonites against him (2Ki_24:2).
Next, Phoenicia revolted. Then in person Nebuchadnezzar marched against Tyre. In the seventh year of his reign he marched thence against Jerusalem; it surrendered, and Jehoiakim fell, probably in battle. Josephus says Nebuchadnezzar put him to death (Ant. 10:6 section 3). (See JEHOIAKIM.) Jehoiakim after a three months’ reign was carried away to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar with the princes, warriors, and craftsmen, and the palace treasures, and Solomon’s gold vessels cut in pieces, at his third advance against Jerusalem (2Ki_24:8-16). Tyre fell 585 B.C., after a 13 years’ siege. Meantime Zedekiah, Nebuchadnezzar’s sworn vassal, in treaty with Pharaoh Hophra (Apries) revolted (Eze_17:15). Nebuchadnezzar besieged him 588-586 B.C., and in spite of a temporary raising of the siege through Hophra (Jer_37:5-8) took and destroyed Jerusalem after an 18 months’ siege (2 Kings 25). Zedekiah’s eyes were put out after he had seen his sons slain first at Riblah, where Nebuchadnezzar “gave judgment upon him,” and was kept a prisoner in Babylon the rest of his life. (See GEDALIAH; NEBUZARADAN; JERUSALEM.)
Phoenicia submitted to him (Ezekiel 26-28; Josephus, Ap. 1:21), and Egypt was punished (Jer_46:13-26; Eze_29:2-10, Josephus, Ant. 10:9, section 7). Nebuchadnezzar is most celebrated for his buildings: the temple of Bel Merodach at Babylon (the Kasr), built with his Syrian spoils (Josephus, Ant. 10:11, section 1); the fortifications of Babylon, three lines of walls 80 ft. broad, 300 ft. high, enclosing 130 square miles; a new palace near his father’s which he finished in 15 days, attached to it were his “hanging gardens,” a square 400 ft. on each side and 75 ft. high, supported on arched galleries increasing in height from the base to the summit; in these were chambers, one containing the engines for raising the water to the mound; immense stones imitated the surface of the Median mountain, to remind his wife of her native land. The standard inscription (“I completely made strong the defenses of Babylon, may it last forever … the city which I have glorified,” etc.) accords with Berosus’ statement, and nine-tenths of the bricks in situ are stamped with Nebuchadnezzar’s name.
Daniel (Dan_4:30) also records his boast, “is not this great Babylon which I have built by the might of my power and for the honour of my majesty?” Sir H. Rawlinson (Inscr. Assyr. and Babyl., 76-77) states that the bricks of 100 different towns about Bagdad all bear the one inscription, “Nebuchadnezzar, son of Nabopolassar, king of Babylon.” Abydenus states Nebuchadnezzar made the nahr malcha, “royal river,” a branch from the Euphrates, and the Acracanus; also the reservoir above the city Sippara, 90 miles round and 120 ft. deep, with sluices to irrigate the low land; also a quay on the Persian gulf, and the city Teredon on the Arabian border. The network of irrigation by canals between the Tigris and Euphrates, and on the right bank of the Euphrates to the stony desert, was his work; also the canal still traceable from Hit at the Euphrates, framing 400 miles S.E. to the bay of Grane in the Persian gulf. His system of irrigation made Babylonia a garden, enriching at once the people and himself.
The long list of various officers in Dan_3:1-3; Dan_3:27, also of diviners forming a hierarchy (Dan_2:48), shows the extent of the organization of the empire, so that the emblem of so vast a polity is “a tree … the height reaching unto heaven, and the sight to the end of all the earth … in which was meat for all, under which the beasts … had shadow and the fowls dwelt in the boughs and all flesh was fed of it” (Dan_4:10-12). In Dan_2:37 he is called “king of kings,” i.e. of the various kingdoms wheresoever he turned his arms, Egypt, Nineveh, Arabia, Phoenicia, Tyre. Isaiah’s patriotism was shown in counseling resistance to Assyria; Jeremiah’s (Jeremiah 27) in urging submission to Babylon as the only safety; for God promised Judah’s deliverance from the former, but “gave all the lands into Nebuchadnezzar’s hands, and the beasts of the field also, to serve him and his son and his son’s son.”
The kingdom originally given to Adam (Gen_1:28; Gen_2:19-20), forfeited by sin, God temporarily delegated to Nebuchadnezzar, the “head of gold,” the first of the four great world powers (Daniel 2 and Daniel 7). As Nebuchadnezzar and the other three abused the trust, for self not, for God, the Son of Man, the Fifth, to whom of right it belongs, shall wrest it from them and restore to man his lost inheritance, ruling with the saints for God’s glory and man’s blessedness (Psa_8:4-6; Rev_11:15-18; Dan_2:34-35; Dan_2:44-45; Dan_7:13-27). Nebuchadnezzar was punished with the form of insanity called lycanthropy (fancying himself to be a beast and living in their haunts) for pride generated by his great conquest and buildings (Daniel 4). When man would be as God, like Adam and Nebuchadnezzar he sinks from lordship over creation to the brute level and loses his true manhood, which is likeness to God (Gen_1:27; Gen_2:19; Gen_3:5; Psa_49:6; Psa_49:10-12; Psa_82:6-7); a key to the symbolism which represents the mighty world kingdoms as “beasts” (Daniel 7).
Angel “watchers” demand that every mortal be humbled whosoever would obscure God’s glory. Abydenus (268 B.C.) states: “Nebuchadnezzar having ascended upon his palace roof predicted the Persian conquest of Babylon (which he knew from Dan_2:39), praying that the conqueror might be borne where there is no path of men and where the wild beasts graze”; a corruption of the true story and confirming it. The panorama of the world’s glory that overcame Nebuchadnezzar through the lust of the eye, as he stood on his palace roof, Satan tried upon Jesus in vain (Mat_4:8-10). In the standard inscription Nebuchadnezzar says, “for four years in Babylon buildings for the honour of my kingdom I did not lay out. In the worship of Merodach my lord I did not sing his praises, I did not furnish his altar with victims, nor clear out the canals” (Rawlinson, Herodotus, ii. 586). It was “while the word was in the king’s mouth there fell a voice from heaven … thy kingdom is departed from thee” (compare Herod, Act_12:19-20).
His nobles cooperated in his being “driven from men” (Dan_4:33); these same “counselors and lords sought unto him,” weary of anarchy after the “seven times,” i.e. a complete sacred cycle of time, a week of years, had passed over him, and with the glimmer of reason left he “lifted up his eyes unto heaven,” instead of beast like turning his eyes downward (compare Jon_2:1-2; Jon_2:4), and turned to Him that smote him (Isa_9:13), and “honoured Him” whom before he had robbed of His due honour. Psa_116:12; Psa_116:14; Mar_5:15; Mar_5:18-19; compare on the spiritual lesson Job_33:17-18; 1Sa_2:8; Pro_16:18. Messiah’s kingdom alone will be the “tree” under whose shadow all nations, and even the dumb creatures, shall dwell in blissful harmony (Eze_17:23; Mat_13:32; Isa_11:6-9). Nitocris was probably his second queen, an Egyptian (for this ancient name was revived about this time, as the Egyptian monuments prove), for he lived 60 years after his marriage to his first queen Amuhia (625 B.C.).
Herodotus ascribes to Nitocris many of the works assigned by Berosus to Nebuchadnezzar. On his recovery, according to the standard inscription, which confirms Scripture, he added “wonders” in old age to those of his earlier reign. He died 561 B.C., 83 or 84 years old, after reigning 43 years. Devotion to the gods, especially Bel Merodach, from whom he named his son and successor Evil Merodach, and the desire to rest his fame on his great works and the arts of peace rather than his warlike deeds, are his favorable characteristics in the monuments. Pride, violence and fury, and cruel sternness, were Nebuchadnezzar’s faults (Dan_2:12; Dan_3:19; 2Ki_25:7; 2Ki_24:8). Not to Daniel but to Nebuchadnezzar, the first representative head of the world power who overcame the theocracy, the dreams were given announcing its doom.
The dream was the appropriate form for one outside the kingdom of God, as Nebuchadnezzar and Pharaoh (Genesis 41). But an Israelite must interpret it; and Nebuchadnezzar worshipped Daniel, an earnest of the future prostration of the world power before Christ and the church (Rev_3:9; 1Co_14:25; Phi_2:10; 1Co_6:2; Luk_19:17). The image set up by Nebuchadnezzar represented himself the head of the first world power, of whom Daniel had said “thou art this head of gold.” Daniel was regarded by Nebuchadnezzar as divine, and so was not asked to worship it (Dan_2:46). The 60 cubits’ height includes together the image, 27 cubits (40 1/2 ft.), and the pedestal, 33 cubits (50 ft.). Herodotus, i. 183, similarly mentions Belus’ image in the temple at Babylon as 40 ft. high. Oppert found in the Dura (Dowair) plain the pedestal of what must have been a colossal statue. Nebuchadnezzar is the forerunner of antichrist, to whose “image” whosoever will not offer worship shall be killed (Rev_13:14).
Fausset Bible Dictionary
1. Judah’s last king, 599 to 588 B.C. (See JEREMIAH.) Youngest son of Josiah and Hamutal (Jer_1:3; Jer_37:1), brother to Jehoahaz (2Ki_24:17-18; 2Ki_23:31). Ten years old when his father died, 21 when he mounted the throne. Originally named Mattaniah; Nebuchadnezzar changed his name to Zedekiah when he deposed Zedekiah’s nephew Jehoiachin. This proves that Nebuchadnezzar treated his vassal kindly, allowing him to choose a new name (Zedekiah is Hebrew, “righteousness of Jehovah”) and confirming it as a mark of his supremacy; this name was to be the pledge of his righteously keeping his covenant with Nebuchadnezzar who made him swear by God (Eze_17:12-16; 2Ch_36:13).
In 1Ch_3:15 Johanan is oldest, then Jehoiakim, Zedekiah is third in order, Shallum fourth, because Jehoiakim and Zedekiah reigned longer, namely, 11 years each; therefore Shallum, though king before Jehoiakim, is put last; on the other hand Zedekiah and Shallum were both sons of Hamutal, therefore put together. Had Zedekiah kept his oath of fealty he would have been safe, though dependent. But weak, vacillating, and treacherous, he brought ruin on his country and on himself. It was through the anger of Jehovah against Judah that Zedekiah was given up to his own rebellious devices, “stiffening his neck and hardening his heart from turning unto the Lord God of Israel” who warned him by Jeremiah; like Pharaoh of old (2Ch_36:12-13), he would “not humble himself” (Jer_38:5; Jer_39:1-7; Jer_52:1-11; and Jeremiah 21; 24; 27; 28; 29; 32; 33; 34; 37; 38).
In Jer_27:1 read “Zedekiah” for “Jehoiakim” with Syriac, Arabic, and one of Kennicott’s manuscripts (compare Jer_27:3; Jer_27:12; and Jer_28:1, “in the fourth year … of the reign of Zedekiah”) The kings of Edom, Moab, Ammon, Tyre, and Sidon sent ambassadors in his fourth year to urge Zedekiah to conspire with them against Nebuchadnezzar. But Jeremiah symbolized the futility of the attempt by sending “yokes” back by the ambassadors. Hananiah, who broke the yoke off Jeremiah’s neck, died that year according to the Lord’s sentence by Jeremiah. Baruch (Bar_1:8) represents Zedekiah as having caused silver vessels to be made to replace the golden ones carried off by Nebuchadnezzar; possibly this may have been owing to the impression made on Zedekiah by Hananiah’s death.
In his eighth year (Josephus Ant. 10:7, Section 3) Zedekiah actually leagued with Egypt in treacherous violation of his compact with Nebuchadnezzar. But evidently (Jeremiah 27-28) Zedekiah had been secretly plotting before, in his fourth year; in that year he had gone to Babylon to allay Nebuchadnezzar’s suspicion (Jer_51:59), and also sent messengers to Babylon (Jer_37:5-11; Jer_34:21; Eze_17:13-20). Zedekiah disregarded Jehovah’s words by Jeremiah, notwithstanding the warning given in Jeconiah’s punishment. Still while the issue between the Chaldaeans and Pharaoh Hophra was undecided, he sent begging Jeremiah, Pray now unto the Lord our God for us.
Nebuchadnezzar on learning Zedekiah’s treachery had sent a Chaldaean army which reduced all Judaea except Jerusalem, Lachish, and Azekah (Jeremiah 34). Zedekiah had in consequence induced the princes and people to manumit their Hebrew bond servants. But when Pharaoh Hophra compelled the Chaldaeans to raise the siege of Jerusalem, the princes and people in violation of the covenant enslaved their Hebrew servants again. So God by Jeremiah gave the enslavers a “liberty” (Jer_34:17) fatal to them, manumission from God’s free service (Psa_119:45; Joh_8:36; 2Co_3:17), to pass under the bondage of the sword, pestilence, and famine.
Then followed Jeremiah’s attempt to escape to his native place and his arrest. Zedekiah sent and took him out of prison, and asked, Is there any word from the Lord? to which the prophet, without regard to his personal interests, replied, “there is, for thou shalt be delivered into the hand of the king of Babylon.” Zedekiah showed his sense of Jeremiah’s faithfulness by ordering bread to be given him out of the bakers’ street until all the bread in the city was spent (Pro_28:23; Psa_37:19). However, in consequence of his prophesying death to those that remained in the city and life to those who should go forth to the Chaldaeans, who had returned to the siege in the tenth month of Zedekiah’s ninth year (Jer_52:4), Jeremiah was again imprisoned. Zedekiah was too weak to resist, but answered his princes “the king is not he that can do anything against you.”
At Ebedmelech’s intercession Zedekiah rescued him, and again consulted him. Again Jeremiah told him his only hope was in going forth to the Chaldaeans. But Zedekiah was afraid lest the Chaldaeans should give him up to Jewish deserters, who would treat him ignominiously. Jeremiah told him in reply that, by not going forth, he should bring burning upon the city, and upon himself the very evil he feared if he went forth, ignominious treatment from not only the deserters but the very women of the palace (Jeremiah 38). So afraid was Zedekiah of his princes that he imposed on Jeremiah a subterfuge, concealing the real purpose of his interview from the princes. The terrible concomitants of a siege soon followed (Jer_38:9), so that mothers boiled and ate the flesh of their own infants (Lam_4:5; Lam_4:8; Lam_4:10) and the visage of their nobles was blacker than coal, their skin clave to their bones and became withered.
On the ninth day of the fourth month in the middle of July (Josephus) after a year and a half’s siege (from the tenth month of the ninth year to the fourth month of the eleventh year of Zedekiah) about midnight a breach was made in the wall The Babylonian princes took their seats in state in the middle gate, between the upper and the lower city. Zedekiah fled in the opposite direction, namely, southwards, with muffled face to escape recognition, and like one digging through a wall to escape (Eze_12:12; Eze_12:6), between the two walls on the E. and W. sides of the Tyropoeon valley, by a street issuing at the gate above the royal gardens and the fountain of Siloam. Zedekiah was overtaken in the plains of Jericho. He was taken for judgment to Riblah at the upper end of Lebanon; there Nebuchadnezzar first killed his sons before his eyes, then caused the eyes of Zedekiah to be “dug out” (Jeremiah 39; Jer_52:4-11).
Thus were fulfilled the seemingly inconsistent prophecies, “his eyes shall behold his eyes,” Jer_32:4, and Eze_12:13 “he shall not see Babylon, though he shall die there.” Zedekiah was put “in prison,” literally, “the house of visitations” or “punishments,” where there was penal work enforced on the prisoners, as grinding, from whence Septuagint reads “in the house of the mill.” So Samson “did grind” (Jdg_16:21). He probably died before Evil Merodach, successor of Nebuchadnezzar, treated kindly Jehoiachin in the 37th year of his captivity, 26 years after the fall of Jerusalem; for no mention is made of him (Jer_52:31).
Fausset’s Bible Dictionary
JEHOIAKIM or ELIAKIM (“whom El, God, established”) at first; 25 years old at his accession. Second son of Josiah and Zebudah, daughter of Pedaiah of Rumah (Arumah in Manasseh, near Shechem? Jdg_9:41); Johanan was the oldest son. Raised to the throne by Pharaoh Necho, who named him Jehoiakim (whom Jehovah establishes), having deposed Jehoahaz, the people’s nominee, his younger brother. (See JEHOAHAZ.) Pharaoh bound Jehoiakim to exact tribute from Judah, for Josiah’s having taken part with Babylon against him: one talent of gold and 100 talents of silver (40,000 British pounds). So “Jehoiakim valued (‘taxed’) the land to give the money to Pharaoh … he exacted the silver and gold of every one according to his valuation” (“taxation”): 2Ki_23:33-34; Jer_22:10-12; Eze_19:4. In Jehoiakim’s fourth year Necho suffered his great defeat from Babylon at Carehemish, wherein he lost his possessions between Euphrates and the Nile, and returned no more to Judaea; so that Josiah’s death was not unavenged (2Ki_24:7; Jer_46:2).
The change of Jehoiakim’s name marked his vassalage (Gen_41:45; Ezr_5:14; Dan_1:7). The names were often from the pagan gods of the conqueror. In this case not so; the pagan kings Pharaoh and Nebuchadnezzar made Jehoiakim and Zedekiah (“Jehovah’s righteousness”) confirm their covenant of subjection with the seal of Jehovah’s name, the Jews’ own God, by whom they had sworn fealty. Jehoiakim reigned 11 years, doing evil throughout, as his forefathers before him. “His eyes and heart were only for covetousness, shedding innocent blood, oppression, and violence” (Jer_22:13-17). “He built his house by unrighteousness and wrong, using his neighbour’s service without wages,” using his people’s forced labour to build himself a splendid palace, in violation of Lev_19:13; Deu_24:14-15; compare Mic_3:10; Hab_2:9; Jam_5:4.
God will repay those who repay not their neighbour’s work. His “abominations which he did, and that which was found in him,” are alluded to 2Ch_36:6. God finds all that is in the sinner (Jer_17:11; Jer_23:24). Sad contrast to his father Josiah, who “did justice, and it was well with him.” Nebuchadnezzar from Carchemish marched to Jerusalem, and fettered him as Pharaoh Necho’s tributary, in the third (Dan 1) or fourth year of his reign (the diversity being caused by reckoning Jehoahaz’ reign as a year, or not), intending to take him to Babylon; bat afterward for the sake of his former ally Josiah, his father, restored him as a vassal. At this time Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, were taken to Babylon. Three years subsequently Jehoiakim rebelled with characteristic perfidy, sacrificing honour and truth in order to spend the tribute on his own costly luxuries (Jer_22:13-17). Nebuchadnezzar, not able in person to chastise him, sent marauding “bands” of Chaldaeans, Syrians, Moabites, and Ammonites (2Ki_24:1-7).
Ammon had seized on Gad’s territory, upon Israel’s exile, and acted as Nebuchadnezzar’s agent to scourge Judah (Jer_49:1-2; Eze_25:3). Jehovah was the primary sender of these scourges (rebellion against Nebuchadnezzar, after promising fealty, was rebellion against God: Jer_27:6-8; Eze_17:16-19), not only for Jehoiakim’s sins but for those of his forefather Manasseh, in whose steps he trod, and the “innocent blood which Jehovah would not pardon.” Jeremiah (Jer_22:18-19) foretold “concerning Jehoiakim, they shall not lament for him, Ah, my brother! or Ah, my sister!” (his queen, the lamentation of blood relatives for a private individual) nor, “Ah, lord; ah, his glory (the public lamentations of subjects for a king; alas, his majesty), he shall be buried with the burial of an ass, drawn and cast forth beyond the gates of Jerusalem”; again, Jer_36:30, “he shall have none to sit (i.e. firmly established and continuing) upon the throne of David (for his son Jeconiah’s reign of three months is counted as nothing, and Zedekiah was not his son but uncle); his dead body shall be cast out in the day to the heat, and in the night to the frost.” (See JECONIAH.)
Jehoiakim was probably slain in a battle with Nebuchadnezzar’s Chaldean and other “bands,” and had no burial; possibly his own oppressed subjects slew him, and “cast out” his body to conciliate his invaders. Nor is this inconsistent with “Jehoiakim slept with his fathers” (2Ki_24:6); it simply expresses his death, not his burial with his royal ancestors (Psa_49:16); “slept with his fathers” and “buried with his fathers” are found distinct (2Ki_15:38; 2Ki_16:20). He reigned 11 years. Early in his reign (Jer_26:1-20, etc.) Jehoiakim showed his vindictive malice against Jehovah’s prophets. Urijah, son of Shemaiah, of Kirjath Jearim, prophesied against Jerusalem and Judah in the name of Jehovah thereupon Jehoiakim sought to kill him; he fled to Egypt, but Jehoiakim sent Elnathan of Achbor, and men with him, who brought Urijah back from Egypt, the Egyptian king allowing his vassal Jehoiakim to do so. Jehoiakim “slew him with the sword, and cast his dead body into the graves of the common people,” instead of burial in the cemetery of the prophets (Mat_23:29).
Jehoiakim gained by it only adding sin to sift, as the argument of the elders in Jeremiah’s behalf implies, the notorious prostration of the state at the time intimating that heavier vengeance would ensue if Jeremiah too, as was threatened, should be slain. By God’s retribution in kind Jehoiakim’s own body fared as he had treated Urijah’s body. 1 Esdras 1:42 speaks of “his uncleanness and impiety.” His intense selfishness and indifference to the people’s sufferings appear in his lavish expenditure upon building palaces for himself at the very time the people were overwhelmed with paying heavy tribute to Pharaoh (Jer_22:13-18). His crowning impiety, which had no parallel in Jewish history, was his cutting up, and burning in the fire before him, the written roll of Jeremiah’s inspired prophecies (Jeremiah 36). Jeremiah being “shut up,” i.e. prevented by fear of the king, sent Baruch to read them to the people assembled out of Judah to the Lord’s house on the fasting day.
“In the fifth year of Jehoiakim they (the princes) proclaimed a fast to all the people,” or (Michaelis) “all the people proclaimed a fast”; in either reading Jehoiakim had no share in appointing it, but chose this season of all seasons to perpetrate such an audacious act. On hearing of the roll, Jehoiakim sent Jehudi his ready tool to fetch it from Elishama the scribe’s chamber; for sinners fleeing from God yet, by an involuntary instinct, seek to hear His words against them. Then, as often as Jehudi read three or four columns of the long roll, Jehoiakim cut the parts read consecutively, until all was destroyed. Yet he and his servants “were not afraid,” a contrast even to the princes who “were afraid both one and other when they had heard all the words”; a still sadder contrast to his father Josiah whose “heart was tender,” and who “rent his clothes” on hearing the words of the law just found (2Ki_22:11; 2Ki_22:13; 2Ki_22:19-20).
Even Elnathan, who had been his tool against Urijah, recoiled from this, and interceded with Jehoiakim not to burn the roll; but he would not hear, nay even commanded his minions to apprehend Baruch and Jeremiah: but the Lord hid them (Psa_31:20; Psa_83:3; Isa_26:20). Judicial blindness and reprobation! The roll was rewritten, not one word omitted, and with awful additions (Mat_5:18; Act_9:5; Act_5:39; Rev_22:19); his body should be exposed to the sun’s “heat,” even as he had exposed the roll to be burnt by the heat of the fire. Sinners only gain additional punishment by fighting with God’s word, which is a sharp sword; they cut themselves, when trying to cut it. Compare the rewriting of the law’s two tables (Exo_34:15-16; Exo_31:18; Exo_34:1-23; Deu_31:9). The two-edged sword of God’s Spirit converts the humble and tender as Josiah, draws out the latent hatred of the ungodly as J. (2Co_2:15-16; Heb_4:12-13). Jehoiakim reigned from 609 B.C. to 598 B.C.
Fausset’s Bible Dictionary
From Nebo, the idol; zar, “prince”; and adan or ‘adown, “lord” (Gesenius); but Furst, from dana (Sanskrit), “cut off.” “Captain of the guard,” literally, “chief of the slaughterers”; next to the royal person (2Ki_25:8-18; Jer_39:9-13). Assumed the chief command on arriving after the siege of Jerusalem. Directed what was to be done with the plunder and captives. (See CAPTIVITY.) Took the chief Jews for judgment to Nebuchadnezzar at Riblah. Visited Jerusalem four years later, and took away more captives (Jer_52:30). By Nebuchadnezzar’s direction, Nebuzaradan “looked well to Jeremiah,” gave him his choice of going to Babylon or staying, then sent him with victuals and a present, to be protected by Gedaliah the governor left over Judah, after having first told the Jews “Jehovah hath done according as He hath said, because ye have sinned against Jehovah” (Jer_39:11-14; Jer_40:2-5). The pagan knew, through Jeremiah, it was Jehovah’s doing; compare the prophecy, Deu_29:24-25. How humiliating to the Jews to be admonished of their sin by a Gentile ruler!
e-vil-me-ro´dak; -mer´o-dak אויל מרדך, ‘ĕwil merodhakh; Septuagint Ευειαλμαρωδέκ, Eueialmarodék; so B in K, but B in Jeremiah, and A and Q in both places much corrupted): The name of the son and immediate successor of Nebuchadnezzar II, king of Babylon. The Babylonian form of the name is Amelu-Marduk, that is, “man of Marduk.” About 30 contract tablets dated in this reign have been found. They show that Evil-merodach reigned for two years and about five months. He is said by Berosus to have conducted his government in an illegal and improper manner, and to have been slain by his sister’s brother, Nergal-shar-usur, who then reigned in his stead. Evil-merodach is said in 2Ki_25:27-30 and in the parallel passage in Jer_52:31-34 to have taken Jehoiachin, king of Judah, from his prison in Babylon, where he seems to have been confined for 37 years, to have clothed him with new garments, to have given him a seat above all the other kings, and to have allowed him to eat at the king’s table all the days of his life. It is an undesigned coincidence, that may be worthy of mention, that the first dated tablet from this reign was written on the 26th of Elul, and Jer_52:31 says that Jehoiachin was freed from prison on the 25th of the same month.
Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown
2Ki_24:10-16. Jerusalem taken.
At that time — within three months after his accession to the throne. It was the spring of the year (2Ch_36:10); so early did he indicate a feeling hostile to the interests of his Assyrian liege lord, by forming a league with Egypt. Nebuchadnezzar sent his generals to besiege Jerusalem, as Jeremiah had foretold (Jer_22:28; Jer_34:20), and soon after he followed in person. Convinced of the hopelessness of making any effectual resistance, Jehoiachin, going to the camp of the besiegers, surrendered (2Ki_24:12), in the expectation, probably, of being allowed to retain his throne as a vassal of the Assyrian empire. But Nebuchadnezzar’s clemency towards the kings of Judah was now exhausted, so that Jehoiachin was sent as a captive to Babylon, according to Jeremiah’s prediction (Jer_22:24), accompanied by the queen mother (the same who had held that dignity under Jehoahaz) (2Ki_23:31), his generals, and officers. This happened in the eighth year of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign, computing from the time when he was associated with his father in the government. Those that were left consisted chiefly of the poorer sort of people and the unskilled workmen. The palace and the temple were ransacked. The smaller golden vessels had been taken on the first capture of Jerusalem and placed by Nebuchadnezzar in the temple of his god as tokens of victory. They were used by Belshazzar at his impious feast [Dan_5:2], for the purpose of rewarding his army with these trophies, among which were probably the golden candlesticks, the ark, etc. (compare 2Ch_36:7; Dan_1:2). Now the gold plating was torn off all the larger temple furniture.
The eighth year – Jeremiah calls it the seventh year Jer_52:28, a statement which implies only a different manner of counting regnal years.
He carried out thence all the treasures – It has been remarked that Nebuchadnezzar spoiled the temple three times. –
1. He took away the greater part of those treasures when he took Jerusalem under Jehoiakim: and the vessels that he took then he placed in the temple of his god, Dan_1:2. And these were the vessels which Belshazzar profaned, Dan_5:2; and which Cyrus restored to Ezra, when he went up to Jerusalem, Ezr_1:2. It was at this time that he took Daniel and his companions.
2. He took the remaining part of those vessels, and broke them or cut them in pieces, when he came the second tine against Jerusalem under Jeconiah; as is mentioned here, 2Ki_24:13.
3. He pillaged the temple, took away all the brass, the brazen pillars, brazen vessels, and vessels of gold and silver, which he found there when he besieged Jerusalem under Zedekiah, 2Ki_25:13-17.
Keil and Delitzsch
Nebuchadnezzar thereupon, that is to say, when he had forced his way into the city, plundered the treasures of the temple and palace, and broke the gold off the vessels which Solomon had made in the temple of Jehovah. קִצֵּץ, to cut off, break off, as in 2Ki_16:17, i.e., to bear off the gold plates. Nebuchadnezzar had already taken a portion of the golden vessels of the temple away with him at the first taking of Jerusalem in the fourth year of Jehoiakim, and had placed them in the temple of his god at Babylon (2Ch_36:7; Dan_1:2). They were no doubt the smaller vessels of solid gold-basins, scoops, goblets, knives, tongs, etc., – which Cyrus delivered up again to the Jews on their return to their native land (Ezr_1:7.). This time he took the gold off the larger vessels, which were simply plated with that metal, such as the altar of burnt-offering, the table of shew-bread and ark of the covenant, and carried it away as booty, so that on the third conquest of Jerusalem, in the time of Zedekiah, beside a few gold and silver basins and scoops (2Ki_25:15) there were only the large brazen vessels of the court remaining (2Ki_25:13-17; Jer_27:18.). The words, “as Jehovah had spoken,” refer to 2Ki_20:17 and Isa_39:6, and to the sayings of other prophets, such as Jer_15:13; Jer_17:3, etc.
Jamison, Fausset, and Brown
2Ki_24:17-20. Zedekiah’s evil reign.
the king of Babylon made Mattaniah, his father’s brother, king in his stead — Adhering to his former policy of maintaining a show of monarchy, Nebuchadnezzar appointed the third and youngest son of Josiah (1Ch_3:15), full brother of Jehoahaz, and uncle of the captive Jehoiachin. But, according to the custom of conquerors, who changed the names of the great men they took captives in war, in token of their supremacy, he gave him the new name of
Zedekiah — that is, “The righteous of God.” This being a purely Hebrew name, it seems that he allowed the puppet king to choose his own name, which was confirmed. His heart towards God was the same as that of Jehoiakim, impenitent and heedless of God’s word.
Keil and Delitzsch
Length and spirit of Zedekiah’s reign (cf. Jer_52:1-3, and 2Ch_36:11-13). – Zedekiah’s mother Hamital, daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah, was also the mother of Jehoahaz (2Ki_23:31); consequently he was his own brother and the half-brother of Jehoiakim, whose mother was named Zebidah (2Ki_23:36). His reign lasted eleven years, and in its attitude towards the Lord exactly resembled that of his brother Jehoiakim, except that Zedekiah does not appear to have possessed so much energy for that which was evil. According to Jer_38:5 and Jer_38:24., he was weak in character, and completely governed by the great men of his kingdom, having no power or courage whatever to offer resistance. but, like them, he did not hearken to the words of the Lord through Jeremiah (Jer_37:2), or, as it is expressed in 2Ch_36:12, “he did not humble himself before Jeremiah the prophet, who spake to him out of the mouth of the Lord.”
He did that which was evil – The character of Zedekiah seems to have been weak rather than wicked. Consult Jer. 34; 37: His chief recorded sins were:
(1) his refusal to be guided in his political conduct by Jeremiah’s counsels, while nevertheless he admitted him to be a true Yahweh-prophet; and
(2) his infraction of the allegiance which he had sworn to Nebuchadnezzar.
Keil and Delitzsch
“For because of the wrath of the Lord it happened concerning Judah and Jerusalem.” The subject to הָיְתָה is to be taken from what precedes, viz., Zedekiah’s doing evil, or that such a God-resisting man as Zedekiah became king. “Not that it was of God that Zedekiah was wicked, but that Zedekiah, a man (if we believe Brentius, in loc.) simple, dependent upon counsellors, yet at the same time despising the word of God and impenitent (2Ch_36:12-13), became king, so as to be the cause of Jerusalem’s destruction” (Seb. Schm.). On וגו הִשְׁלִיכֹו עַד cf. 2Ki_24:3, and 2Ki_17:18, 2Ki_17:23. “And Zedekiah rebelled against the king of Babel,” who, according to 2Ch_36:13, had made him swear by God, to whom he was bound by oath to render fealty. This breach of covenant and frivolous violation of his oath Ezekiel also condemns in sharp words (Eze_17:13.), as a grievous sin against the Lord. Zedekiah also appears from the very first to have had no intention of keeping the oath of fealty which he took to the king of Babel with very great uprightness. For only a short time after he was installed as king he despatched an embassy to Babel (Jer_29:3), which, judging from the contents of the letter to the exiles that Jeremiah gave to the ambassadors to take with them, can hardly have been sent with any other object that to obtain from the king of Babel the return of those who had been carried away. Then in the fourth year of his reign he himself made a journey to Babel (Jer_51:59), evidently to investigate the circumstances upon the spot, and to ensure the king of Babel of his fidelity. And in the fifth month of the same year, probably after his return from Babel, ambassadors of the Moabites, Ammonites, Tyrians, and Sidonians came to Jerusalem to make an alliance with him for throwing off the Chaldaean yoke (Jer_27:3). Zedekiah also had recourse to Egypt, where the enterprising Pharaoh Hophra (Apries) had ascended the throne; and then, in spite of the warnings of Jeremiah, trusting to the help of Egypt, revolted from the king of Babel, probably at a time when Nebuchadnezzar (according to the combinations of M. v. Nieb., which are open to question however) was engaged in a war with Media.
It came to pass – Some prefer “came this to pass:” in the sense. “Through the anger of the Lord was it that another had king ruled in Jerusalem and in Judah:” concluding the chapter with the word “presence;” and beginning the next chapter with the words, “And Zedekiah rebelled against the king of Babylon.”
Rebelled – The Book of Jeremiah explains the causes of rebellion. In Zedekiah’s early years there was an impression, both at Jerusalem Jer_28:1-11 and at Babylon Jer. 29:5-28, that Nebuchadnezzar was inclined to relent. By embassy to Babylon Jer_29:3, and a personal visit Jer_51:59, Zedekiah strove hard to obtain the restoration of the captives and the holy vessels. But he found Nebuchadnezzar obdurate. Zedekiah returned to his own country greatly angered against his suzerain, and immediately proceeded to plot a rebellion. He sought the alliance of the kings of Tyre, Sidon, Moab, Ammon, and Edom Jer_27:3, and made overtures to Hophra, in Egypt, which were favorable received Eze_17:15, whereupon he openly revolted, apparently in his ninth year, 588 B.C. Tyre, it must be remembered, was all this time defying the power of Nebuchadnezzar, and thus setting an example of successful revolt very encouraging to the neighboring states. Nebuchadnezzar, while constantly maintaining an army in Syria, and continuing year after year his attempts to reduce Tyre (compare Eze_29:18) was, it would seem, too much occupied with other matters, such, probably, as the reduction of Susiana Jer_49:34-38, to devote more than a small share of his attention to his extreme western frontier. In that same year, however (588 B.C.), the new attitude taken by Egypt induced him to direct to that quarter the main force of the Empire, and to take the field in person.
In the fifth month – On the seventh day of the fifth month, (answering to Wednesday, Aug. 24), Nebuzar-adan made his entry into the city; and having spent two days in making provision, on the tenth day of the same month, (Saturday, Aug. 27), he set fire to the temple and the king’s palace, and the houses of the nobility, and burnt them to the ground; Jer_52:13, compared with Jer_39:8. Thus the temple was destroyed in the eleventh year of Zedekiah, the nineteenth of Nebuchadnezzar, the first of the XLVIIIth Olympiad, in the one hundred and sixtieth current year of the era of Nabonassar, four hundred and twenty-four years three months and eight days from the time in which Solomon laid its foundation stone.
Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown
on the seventh day of the month … came Nebuzar-adan — (compare Jer_52:12). In attempting to reconcile these two passages, it must be supposed either that, though he had set out on the seventh, he did not arrive in Jerusalem till the tenth, or that he did not put his orders in execution till that day. His office as captain of the guard (Gen_37:36; Gen_39:1) called him to execute the awards of justice on criminals; and hence, although not engaged in the siege of Jerusalem (Jer_39:13), Nebuzar-adan was dispatched to rase the city, to plunder the temple, to lay both in ruins, demolish the fortifications, and transport the inhabitants to Babylon. The most eminent of these were taken to the king at Riblah (2Ki_25:27) and executed, as instigators and abettors of the rebellion, or otherwise obnoxious to the Assyrian government. In their number were Seraiah, the high priest, grandfather of Ezra (Ezr_7:1), his sagan or deputy, a priest of the second order (Jer_21:2; Jer_29:25, Jer_29:29; Jer_37:3).
2Ki 25:9 Burnt the house of the Lord – One of the apocryphal writers tells us, that Jeremiah got the ark out of the temple, and conveyed it to a cave in mount Nebo, 2 Macc. 2:4-5. But this is like the other tales of that author, who has no regard either to truth or probability. For Jeremiah was at this time a close prisoner. By the burning of the temple God would shew, how little he cares for the outward pomp of his worship, when the life and power of religion are gone. About four hundred and thirty years the temple of Solomon had stood. And it is observed by Josephus, that the second temple was burnt by the Romans, the same month, and the same day of the month, that the first temple was burnt by the Chaldeans.
Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown
seven and thirtieth year of the captivity of Jehoiachin — corresponding with the year of Nebuchadnezzar’s death, and his son Evil-merodach’s ascension to the throne.
Evil-merodach … did lift up the head of Jehoiachin … and spake kindly — gave him liberty upon parole. This kindly feeling is said to have originated in a familiar acquaintance formed in prison, in which Evil-merodach had lain till his father’s death, on account of some malversation while acting as regent during Nebuchadnezzar’s seven years’ illness (Dan_4:32, Dan_4:33). But doubtless the improvement in Zedekiah’s condition is to be traced to the overruling providence and grace of Him who still cherished purposes of love to the house of David (2Sa_7:14, 2Sa_7:15).
Evil-merodach gave him garments befitting his rank. To dress a man suitably to his position was the first thought of an Oriental Gen_41:42; Est_8:15; Dan_5:29; Luk_15:22. So again, Oriental kings regarded it as a part of their greatness to feed daily a vast multitude of persons at their courts (see 1Ki_4:22-23). Of these, as here, a certain number had the special privilege of sitting actually at the royal board, while the others ate separately, generally at a lower level. See Jdg_1:7; 2Sa_9:13; 1Ki_2:7; Psa_41:9.
A continual allowance given him of the king – He lived in a regal style, and had his court even in the city of Babylon, being supplied with every requisite by the munificence and friendship of the king. In about two years after this, Evil-merodach was slain in a conspiracy; and it is supposed that Jehoiachin, then about fifty-eight years of age, fell with his friend and protector. Thus terminates the catastrophe of the Jewish kings, people, and state; the consequence of unheard-of rebellions and provocations against the Majesty of heaven.